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Year 8: Church History: Referencing

Citation and referencing - Harvard style

When undertaking a written task it is often necessary to quote authors, facts or ideas from sources of information you have used.

This is done to give credit to the ideas of others, lend weight to your own arguments and support your understanding of the concepts, and to allow others to locate the sources used.

Acknowledging the source of the information is an important academic skill and is done through the process of citation and referencing.

Loreto uses the Harvard author-date system of citation and referencing. 

Online Reference Generator

An online generator of Harvard author-date system references for a comprehensive range of information sources (print and online), for inserting into bibliographies.

The generator will save time when it comes to preparing a bibliography or reference list. However, you still need to ensure that the information you enter into the generator is accurate.

Use the generator and see the examples below.

Why does referencing matter?

Murdoch University 2018, Why referencing is important, online video, 29 November, viewed 2 September 2019, <>.   Duration: 2 mins.

Plagiarism - how to avoid it

Plagiarism occurs when you use the information or ideas of others, but don't acknowledge them through citation. 

Brock University 2014, What is plagiarism and how to avoid it, online video, 2 September, viewed 4 November 2019, <>.   Duration: 2 mins.

Example - YouTube video

Dewey, M 2014Don't plagiarizzleonline video25 June, viewed 4 November 2019, <>.

Harvard style format:

Producer or Production body, First initial Year created, Title of video, Date posted, viewed date, <URL>.  

Example - Book

Karkanis, C 2018Your best score: how to reach your full potential in Year 12Affirm PressSouth Melbourne.

Harvard style format:

Surname, First initial Year, Title of book: subtitle, Publisher, Place of publication.

Example - Book chapter

‘Changes to the lexicon’ 2017, in K Burridge, Understanding language change, Routledge, London.

Harvard style format:

'Title of chapter' Year, in First initial Surname, Title of book, Publisher, Place of publication. 

Need help? Email the Library

Citation - how to acknowledge ideas from references you've found

In the text of an assignment at the point you introduce an author’s ideas, insert author and year of publication detail about the source (e.g. book, journal article, webpage) you used. For example:

According to Anderson (2019, p. 34), recent findings about gut bacteria “challenge the whole paradigm of mental illness being caused by a chemical imbalance in the brain.” (direct quote = taken word for word)

Depression and anxiety are two mood conditions that have been linked to the health of microbes in the gut (Anderson 2019).  (paraphrase = describing in your own words part of what the author said)

Including a page number is optional, and mainly used to draw the reader’s attention to a specific page.

How to present a Reference List for an assignment

Each citation you have included in your assignment must have a corresponding entry in a Reference List. At the end of the assignment on a separate page with the heading Reference List, present the sources in alphabetical order by author’s surname (or title for sources without an author).

A teacher may also ask for a Bibliography – a second list of everything in the Reference List, as well as other sources of information you used in preparing for your assignment but didn’t cite.

Tip - Keeping track of sources

It's good practice to keep track of the details about the sources you might use when you are at the information gathering stage of your assignment.  
This is more time efficient - and less frustrating! - than having to go back and find them once you have written up your work.

Essentially, you need to include as much information as possible so that someone else could use your citation to locate a copy:

  • the author(s)
  • article or book chapter title
  • journal or book title
  • date of publication
  • pagination
  • URL (if online)

Example - Print newspaper article

Ironside, R & Owens, J 2019, ‘Billboards to tear down all junk food ads’, The Australian22 April, pp. 3-3.

Harvard style format:

Surname, First initial year, 'Article title', Newspaper title, date month, pp. page number range.

Example - Book chapter in an edited book

Abdel-Fattah, R 2014, ‘The road to self-acceptance is paved with Tim Tams’, in Pajalic A & Divaroren D (ed.), Coming of age: growing up Muslim in Australia, Allen & Unwin, Sydney.

Harvard style format:

Surname of chapter author, first initial Year, 'Title of chapter', in Surname of editor, first initial (ed.), Title of book: subtitle, Publisher, Place of publication. 

Example - Broadcast

The young Australians fighting period poverty’ 2019ABC News, television programABC30 August, viewed 2 September 2019, <>.

Harvard style format:

'Broadcast title' year, Program title, television program, Channel, date month broadcast, viewed date month year, <web address of broadcast>.

Example - Online newspaper article

Topsfield, J 2019, ‘Australia faces deepening recycling crisis as India bans plastic waste imports’, The Age22 April, viewed 5 August 2019, <>.

Harvard style format:

Surname, First initial year, 'Article title', Newspaper title, day month, viewed day year, <specific web address of article>.

Example - Online journal article

Fernald, A 1994, ‘A room of one's own, personal criticism and the essay’, Twentieth Century Literature, vol. 40, no. 2, viewed 4 November 2019, <>.

Harvard style format:

Surname, First initial Year, 'Title of article', Title of journal, vol. number, issue number, viewed date, <URL>.